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Façade types

Conventional façade (natural stone façade)

A natural stone façade has an insulation of stone and fibreglass wool (12 cm) to reach the desired level of thermal insulation (U = 0.35 W/m²K). All other types of façade were compared with this façade in terms of energy.
Figure 1: Conventional façade

PV façade

Polycrystalline modules with an average efficiency of 14% were installed on a wall made of up 20 cm concrete and 10 cm exterior insulation finishing system. The installation angle of these non-ventilated warm façades and thus the angle of inclination of the PV modules varied from 75° to 90° in steps of 5°.
Figure 2: PV façade

Sunshading façade

In this type of façade, the brises soleils with crystalline PV modules are located above the windows. The angle of inclination is 30° so as to ensure natural cleaning of snow and dirt. A ventilation gap between the exterior wall and the PV modules prevents heat build-up underneath the brises soleils. A variation on this façade with brises soleils and additional window blinds was also simulated.

Figure 3: Sunshading façade

PV double façade

In the PV double façade, a second layer of glazing was assumed in addition to the exterior wall of concrete and thermal insulation. If outside temperature is less than 5 °C, the ingoing and outgoing air ducts remain closed. This fourth type of façade is assumed to have façade-integrated semitransparent thin-film modules. Light transmission was assumed to be 25%, electrical efficiency 7%.
Figure 4: PV double façade

Last page update: 08.02.2011